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「ジェントルマン」

受賞作ドットジェイピー

ジェントルマン

デヴォン紀大論争画像
デヴォン紀大論争
(ISBN: 9784622089353)
¥19,800
在庫あり
みすず書房
マーティン・J・S・ラドウィック/菅谷 暁

受賞一覧

2012

第65回野間文芸賞

Wikipedia情報

ジェントルマン (英語: Gentleman) は地主貴族を核とするイギリスの名望家。16世紀から20世紀初頭にかけての実質的なイギリスの支配階級であった。世襲の爵位を有する少数の貴族(19世紀初頭で500家ほど)と、身分上は庶民である大地主層ジェントリを中核とし、経済活動の活発化に伴って興隆した中流階級を随時取り込む形でその境界を広げながら支配体制の温存を図った。そのため、本来は不労所得者である地主貴族層(つまり貴族とジェントリ)を指す言葉であったが、時代を経るにつれて、地主以外の上位中産階級に属する職業にも「ジェントルマン」とみなされるものが出てきた。かれらは大学教育等のしかるべき教育や専門的訓練を必要とする「プロフェッション」(専門職)と呼ばれる職種の従事者で、高級官吏、政治家、将校、医師(内科医)、法律家(弁護士)、国教会聖職者、貿易商などがこれに含まれる。こうした職種に就く人にはジェントルマン階層出身者で家督を継げない二男坊・三男坊が多く、かれらは大地主になれずともジェントルマンとしての面目を保とうとした。こうした人々は本来のジェントルマンとそうでない人々の間のグレーゾーンに位置し、疑似ジェントルマンとも呼ばれる。「家柄」や「出自」とともに身につけた「教養」や「徳性」(道徳性)といった要素がジェントルマンの条件とされたため、「紳士的な」人物に対しての形容として用いられることもある。